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Text Structures

Text structure refers to the ways that authors organize information in text. Teaching students to recognize the underlying structure of content-area texts can help students focus attention on key concepts and relationships, anticipate what’s to come, and monitor their comprehension as they read. 

Most texts can be understood using one of five major text structures.

 Text Structure    Purpose Sample Graphic Organizer Signal Words
List of Ideas      To list information, words, ideas without concern for order or importance 
  • for example
  • characteristics
  • for instance
  • such as
  • is like
  • including
  • to illustrate 
 Sequential Order To list information, words, ideas in a specific order 
  •  first
  • second
  • third
  • later
  • next
  • before
  • then
  • finally
  • after
  • when
  • later
  • since
  • now
  • previously
  • Specific days, dates, and/or times
 Compare and Contrast To examine how items are alike and different 
  •  however
  • nevertheless
  • on the other hand
  • but
  • similarly
  • although
  • also
  • in contrast
  • different
  • alike
  • same as
  • either/or
  • in the same way
  • just like
  • just as
  • likewise
  • in comparison
  • whereas
  • yet
 Cause and Effect To examine how items impact each other in terms of causes and effects 
  •  if/then
  • reasons why
  • as a result
  • therefore
  • because
  • consequently
  • since
  • so that
  • for
  • hence
  • due to
  • thus
  • this led to
 Problem and Solution to break down problems and solutions into manageable chunks of information 
  •  problem is
  • dilemma is
  • if/then
  • because
  • so that
  • question/answer
  • puzzle is solved


TRANSITIONS and KEY WORDS

LIST OF IDEAS

SEQUENTIAL ORDER

COMPARE AND CONTRAST

CAUSE AND EFFECT

·         to begin with

·         besides

·         then

·         next

·         finally

·         several

·         numerous

·         for example

·         for instance

·         in addition

·         in fact

·         most important

·         equally important

·         also

·         after

·         after a while

·         before

·         gradually

·         in the meantime

·         initially

·         later

·         not long after

·         now

·         on (date)

·         since

·         soon

·         when

·         while

·         although

·         as well as

·         conversely

·         either/neither

·         even though

·         however

·         in the same way

·         not only

·         on the one hand

·         on the other hand

·         otherwise

·         rather than

·         similarly

·         unless

·         accordingly

·         as a result

·         as might be expected

·         because of

·         consequently

·         due to

·         in effect

·         for this reason

·         nevertheless

·         so that

·         subsequently

·         therefore

·         this led to

·         thus

 

INTRODUCTION

BODY

CONCLUSION

·         Many claim

·         The question is

·         The problem is

·         The major issue is

·         Data suggests

·         Let’s examine

·         More than ever before

·         What if

·         Imagine

·         Suppose

·         To begin with

·         In the first place

·         For instance

·         At the same time

·         Meanwhile 

·         Equally important

·         On the other hand

·         Nevertheless

·         Although

·         To illustrate

·         Moreover

·         Keep in mind

·         Furthermore

·         On top of that

·         Undoubtedly

·         Without a doubt

·         Clearly   

·         Until now

·         All along

·         Beyond that

·         In any case

·         Eventually

·         In the long run

·         As you can see

·         Sooner or later

·         Ultimately

·         In the end

·         In other words

·         In a nutshell

·         On the whole

 

ĉ
Rhonda Kaye,
Jul 31, 2013, 7:28 AM
ĉ
Rhonda Kaye,
Jul 31, 2013, 7:28 AM
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