Writing and Research

Using daily writing routines are simple ways to incorporating writing into classroom instruction in a meaningful way.  The table below provides more information about a few daily writing routines and how to implement them in any classroom.  Writing requirements for each grade level is delineated in Section 2 of this document.

 Routine         Purpose Steps
 Sentence Frames & Transitions
 This daily routine provides simple sentence structures and transition words/phrases to help students understand.  1. Teacher provides students with categorized sentence frames and transitions.
2. Teacher uses sentence frames and transitions to support students in the following ways:
  • to give directions
  • to introduce new information and concepts
  • to guide students to identify main ideas & details
3. Students use sentence frames and transitions to:
  • paraphrase quotes from a text
  • summarize portions of a text
  • combine ideas from portions of a text or different texts
  • show understanding of the relationships between/among ideas and information
 Writing Frames This routine provides context rich language frames to help students identify key details and relationships between ideas. 
  1. Teacher creates a text-dependent question or task.
  2. Teacher writes a possible and acceptable response to the task, including appropriate transitions.  
  3. Teacher removes the key details from the response, leaving part of the topic sentence and guiding transitions.
  4. Teacher provides this writing frame to guide student comprehension and summarization of text.
  5. As students become more proficient, gradually remove parts of the frame.
 Summarizing         This routine guides students to determine central ideas of or reliable inferences from a text by asking and answering text based questions. 1. Teacher provides the  text-dependent question or task of annotating the text using the following questions:
  • What essential words and phrases do you need to KEEP? (underline)
  •  What trivial information can you DELETE without changing the meaning? (cross out)
  • What words can you SUBSTITUTE for other words and not change the meaning? (write in the margin)
3. Students use the words they underlined and wrote in the margin, to write a short summary.  
 Quotation Paraphrasing This routine supports close reading of a text and citation of complex textual evidence.
  1.  Teacher provides a text-dependent question or task that includes selecting a quote from the text.
  2. Read a selection (teacher, student pairs or individual students).
  3. Students select and cite a quote from text to answer the given question/task.
  4. Students restate the quote in other words using academic language.  Students may use sentence frames to help them paraphrase.
  5. Students write a short paragraph that explains how the selected quote answers the given question/task.  

Student paragraphs should  achieve the following:
  • Clearly state how the selected quote answers the question or task.
  • Provide textual evidence to support their explanation.
  • Explain how the textual evidence supports their choice of quote to answer the given question/task.

Subpages (1): Sentence Frames
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